Hypnagogic Hallucinations

Sometimes referred to as waking dreams, Hypnagogic Hallucinations occur as someone is drifting off to sleep. Although the term ‘hallucination’ can often be associated with potential mental disorders, there are some common factors that distinguish hypnagogic hallucinations from those that could be related to mental health issues. For example, they are often recognised as not being real and quickly dismissed, rather than having long lasting effects to the individual.

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The Dunning-Kruger Effect

Is a hypothetical cognitive bias that states people with low ability at a task over estimate their own ability, and that people with high ability at a task underestimate their own ability.

Described by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger; this bias is a result of internal illusion in people of low ability and an external misconception in people of high ability.

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